Unique to Sumerian religion is the fact that there is an absolute inferiority of men to gods. Their history is shrouded in mystery. There is no place on earth that is so beautiful and so fertile. The Babylonians, Assyrians, and Akkadians that lived for about thousands of years prior to the common era are all covered in the Sumerian civilization. Sumerians believed that four main gods created and ruled Sumer. I have been working on the Indus script for several decades and I found that the ‘fish’ signs have a counterpart in Sumer. Inanna might have been popular, but she was a ways down the totem-pole. He represented the brilliant light of the sun, which returns every day to illuminate the lives of mankind, as well as providing the warmth to enable the plants to grow. The execution of these plans was left to Enki who was wise, skillful, handy, and resourceful. He was also a protective guardian during the night when he watched over those who were asleep, bringing them good dreams and preventing nightmares. As a protector of good and destroyer of evil, he also had a warrior aspect to his personality. We know that they were pantheistic and their gods were the personification of the elements and natural forces. There were more than 3,000 Sumerian gods and goddesses, and the four most well-known gods in the Sumerian religion were An, Ki, Enlil and Enki. The White Goddess Pantheons: Sumerian Gods and Goddesses. Nanna brought light to the dark lapis lazuli sky. There was an unbroken rule that no one who entered the underworld could return without producing a substitute. Here it is impossible for men to achieve any sort of paradise, which is reserved only for the immortal gods, not for mortal men. It talked about a lot of things from high magick to vampirism and even a great war. The fire goddesses represent the element of fire in its many different forms; from the spectacular volcano Goddesses to the more benign Goddesses of the hearth fire. She was also believed to be the mother of Enki, the water god. It is important to cover Sumerian Goddesses as their stories come from what is believed to be one of the earliest civilizations on earth. Between heaven and earth came the air, whose main characteristic was expansion. Apart from An, Enlil, Enki and Inanna, there were three other deities that make up the seven most important gods and goddesses of the Sumerian pantheon. Gods like Enki and Inanna were viewed as having been assigned their rank, power and knowledge from An, the heaven deity, or Enlil, head of the Sumerian pantheon. After Enlil and Nanna both refused to help, Ninshubur went to Enki, the god of wisdom, who came to Inanna’s rescue. She also had a sister, Ereskigal, who was queen of the underworld. Sumerian Mythology: Captivating Myths of Gods, Goddesses, and Legendary Creatures of Ancient Sumer and Their Importance to the Sumerians Also known as Zarpanit, Zarpandit, Zerpanitum, Zerbanitu, and Zirbanit. This course includes the most important and highly worshiped deities from as long ago as 5000 BC. The principal temple of Utu, called E-babbar or White House was at Sippar. An became the ruler of heaven and Ki became the ruler of earth. The Sumerian King List records all the rulers of Earth back over 400,000 years. Nammu was also known as “the lady of the mountains.” In many poems, she is said to have created mankind by making a clay figurine which was then brought to life. An is the Sumerian word for heaven, and he represents the father of all the gods. Throughout Sumerian history, as a ruler of the Erech city-state, she was primarily responsible for sexual love and procreation as the life-giving goddess of love, ensuring the prosperity of the land and its people. Utu was the Sumerian sun god. Damkina: An Earth mother Goddess also known as Damgalnuna. Ama -Arhus Fertility Goddess also known as Amat- Ama Arhus. Although one of the most important deities, An was ill-defined and he is represented in art with obscure iconography and attributes. You will therefore notice many similarities in their characteristics and themes. The Tablet of Destinies was one of the objects which gave Enlil the power to determine the destinies of the world. This region is literally heaven. Sumerian and Hindu Gods and Goddesses In the world of Sumeria, Gods and Goddesses existed participating in the affairs of the Heavens, Earth, and the Netherworld. In the Early Dynastic god lists, such as Fara SF 1, the moon god appears immediately after the four leading gods An, Enlil, Inana and Enki (Klein 2001: 290, and this important, albeit slightly junior position, is confirme… Among these decrees were those referring to lordship, wisdom, understanding, victory, judgment, and decisions. The goddess Inanna was the most important female deity of the ancient period. Also known as Nillina. The city was then ruled by a priest king assisted by a wise council of elders made up of both men and woman. Utu was the Sumerian sun god. That is why Utu was known as a god of truth and justice. In Sumerian tradition, he was represented with a saw knife and fiery rays. Sumerian Gods & Goddesses . She had many temples with the biggest one at Nippur. Sister of Inanna. Nammu was originally a personification of the primeval sea as the beginning of the world and one of the mother goddesses. Sumerian Mythology: Captivating Myths of Gods, Goddesses, and Legendary Creatures of Ancient Sumer and Their Importance to the Sumerians [Clayton, Matt] on Amazon.com. Nanshe: Associated with fishing, justice, prophecy and fertility. Together with An, there was Nanna, the moon god; Enlil, the air god; and his wife Ninlil, the air goddess. "The Sumerians believed that the first thing that existed was the primordial sea (associated with the goddess Nammu), from which emerged heaven (An) and earth (Ki), united as though they were a large mountain in the midst of the sea. He was called Anu by the Akkadians, rulers of Mesopotamia after the conquest of Sumer in 2334 BCE by King Sargon of Akkad. It can be translated as the land of six cities and six rivers. Below is a list of the main Sumerian Goddesses with details on their main area of influence and alternative spellings. Those gods were the god of sky, wind, foothills, and fresh water. In fact it’s a roller-coaster adventure with the Gods, containing fantasy, love, bloodshed and allegorical insights into the human condition. Sumerian Pantheon. Inanna was known to Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians as Ishtar and Romans as Venus. About 3-4 years ago, I started researching ancient Egyptian spirituality. During the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE, Sumerian deities became more anthrocentric and were "...nature gods transformed into city gods." These tablets gave him control over the fate of man and made him very powerful. There were hundreds of gods who were responsible for every thing in the world, from rivers and mountains to making bread or pottery. Gods and Goddesses. Anunit, Astarte and Atarsamain are alternative names for Ishtar. Utu was the son of Nanna, the moon god, and the twin brother of Inanna, the goddess of love and war. When air moved above earth (or when Enlil united with his mother Ki) and received the aid of water (Enki), plants and animals came into being. An - A sky god, the cuneiform symbol for this god, "Dingir," was the same as that for heaven and for divinity in general, reflecting his prominence in the Sumerian pantheon. Ningal: She is known as the "Great Lady" Goddess of reeds, the wife of the Moon God, Nanna and mother of Inanna. In Sumerian myth, An and Ki produced a variety of plants on the earth. I have been reading about the Sumerian Gods for quite some time. Sumerian Gods and Goddesses By Lindsey Crowell Sumerian People Sumerians believed in many Gods and Goddesses. Marduk, who to the Sumerians was just another god, was the leader of the gods to the Babylonians. The cult of Utu can be traced back to very early times. Once heaven and earth had been separated, plants, animals, and human life became possible. According to the some resources, these gods came from Nibiru - 'Planet of the Crossing.' Enlil was ranked higher of the two, but Enki created man. Enki was also associated with wisdom, magic, incantations, and arts and crafts. The major deities in the Sumerian pantheon included An, the god of the heavens, Enlil, the god of wind and storm, Enki, the god of water and human culture, Ninhursag, the goddess of fertility and the earth, Utu, the god of the sun and justice, and his father Nanna, the god of the moon. The city of Babylon was built to honor the great god Marduk. Earth was Sumer, it was created by the migrants from the Indus Valley. Utu’s main function was to supervise the moral order, since justice, truth, and righteousness were important to the Sumerians. Main Gods and Goddesses. Ki is also identified with the goddesses Ninmah, the great queen; Ninhursag, the queen of the cosmic mountain; Nintu, the queen who gives birth; and many more. She was either the wife of Ninurta, the god of war, or Abu, the god of plants. It is An who, in Sumerian tradition, took over heaven when it was separated from earth, creating the universe as we know it. These children of An at some point or other included Ningirsu, Gatumdug, Baba, Adad, Enki, Enlil, Girra, Nanna, Nergal, Sara, Inana, Nanaya, Nidaba, Ninisinna, … Enki, the great Sumerian water god, was one of the four creation deities of Sumer, and the god of fresh water, male fertility, and knowledge. Ancient civilizations gave equal opportunity to deities of either gender, but with the passage of time, the Sumerian Gods took a greater role and the goddesses receded in the background. His rains caused the land to bear grain and other food for his friends; hence his title Lord of Abundance. Nov 16, 2020 - Explore Sandra Jacobson's board "Gods and Goddesses" on Pinterest. They have human personality traits and frailties and live together in family groups. By this time the world had come into being, for the sky (An) by expansion of air (Enlil) had reached a great height, and the earth (Ki) had made a solid floor below, with sun and moon to bring light. The main center of his cult was the temple of E-kur, or the Mountain House, at Nippur, and Enlil was often called “the great mountain” and “king of the foreign lands.”. Nammu: Represents the primeval sea from which she gave birth to the heavens (An) and to the earth mother (Ki). Ishtar is the Akkadian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. His most important role, however, was to offer the king “understanding, skill and knowledge.” Enki was a son of An, the heaven god. Gula gave birth to the healing god Damu, and to the god Ninazu (also associated with healing). Enlil - The god of air, wind, and storms, Enlil held the Tablets of Destiny. A God of wealth called Bogu and a Babylonian god of fortune related to the God Marduk named Ziku are the two Sumerian Gods of Wealth. According to Sumerian poetry, the goddess Ninmah acted as a midwife. Inanna, twin of Utu/Shamash, children of Nannar/Sin, first born on Earth of Enlil. Enki was always seen as favoring mankind. Anunnaki has been considered to be the descendants of An and his spouse, the earth goddess Ki. He was the oldest god in the Sumerian pantheon, and part of a triad including Enlil, god of the sky and Enki, god of water. Ki: The Earliest Sumerian earth Goddesses. Associated with the moon, Sin was represented as the bull, with the symbol alluding to the resemblance of the waxing moon to the horns of the animal. Inanna visited the underworld and told her vizier, or advisor, Ninshubur that if she did not return after three days, he was to alert the gods. Nanna was one the patron deities of Ur. Sumerian mythology greatly influenced the myths of later civilisations including those of the Greeks, and Babylonians. Nanna, the moon god, was the major astral deity of the Sumerians, born of Enlil, the air god, and his wife Ninlil, the air goddess. An was the great god in heaven and his two sons were Enki who was sent to Earth first and then Enlil. Many people believe that these Gods were of a reptilian nature. She passed seven gates into the nether world, and her jewels were removed piece by piece as she walked until she was brought naked and on her knees before Ereshkigal who turned her into a corpse. The 10 Oldest Ancient Civilizations That Have Ever Existed, Top 10 Most Worshiped Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Top 10 Inventions and Discoveries of Ancient Greece…, Top 11 Inventions and Discoveries of Mesopotamia, Epic of Gilgamesh: Summary in 10 Interesting Points, Top 10 Sumerian Inventions and Discoveries, Top 21 Fascinating Facts about the Ancient Persian Empire, Top 12 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Sumer, Top 13 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Babylonia, Top 12 Fascinating Facts about Ancient Mesopotamia. The legend is that Enlil found himself living in utter darkness in the sky. She was a patron of Uruk, where her principal shrine E-ana, or House of Heaven, was located. Many other gods and goddesses would soon be born and lived in great cities in the land between the two rivers. This is also why these Goddesses are often referred to as Mesopotamian Goddesses as it is often difficult to attribute a Goddess to a particular group of people as her attributes and names often evolved over time. See more ideas about Ishtar, Sumerian, Gods and goddesses. Gula often appears as a woman with stars and her dog. She was created by Ninhursag to heal Enki's ailing mouth, after he had eaten her grandchildren in the "Sumerian Paradise myth.". Sumerian Gods and Goddesses Sumerian Gods Is Anu holding the symbolic Holy Grail of a Bloodline he created? Jul 27, 2017 - Explore Mesopotamia's board "Ishtar" on Pinterest. The city associated with Anu was Uruk. Sumerians are an early civilization to have Gods of Wealth. Sky God who ruled heaven, ruled the great ranges of the snow clad Hindukush, the Karakoram and the Himalayas. He was describe… I deciphered the ‘fish’ sign and found that it represents woman. 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