Most of the windows have brick arches. [9][13] During 1863 and 1865, the Havemeyers bought two lots between South 2nd and South 4th streets for expansion of the facility. Raceland Sugar Mill has processed its sugar at the Chalmette Domino plant for about 32 years. [35][38][39] Fifty pipes transported the mixture upward. The closest subways are the L at Bedford Avenue, the G at Metropolitan and the JMZ trains at Marcy Avenue. The authors with Robert Shelton at the exhibit. [74], In 2014, photographer David Allee explored the abandoned portions of the refinery, stating that it smelled of "creme brulee mixed with mold and rot". The highly recognizable “Domino Sugar” sign was added the 1950s, transforming the 90,000-square-foot complex into a true New York City landmark. The American Sugar Refining Company grew to control most of the sugar industry in the United States by the late 19th century, with the Brooklyn refinery as its largest plant. On the eastern facade, along Kent Avenue, there are vertical brick pilasters. [39] The interior of the building will be converted to 380,000 square feet (35,000 m2) of office space once its 2020s renovation is completed. [72], Though the complex was able to process 950 million U.S. gallons (3.6×109 l; 790,000,000 imp gal) of sugar a year, it was only processing half that amount by 2002. The same thing happened in 2007 when another explosion rocked New Yorkers once again. After the Civil War, Domino Sugar Factory in Brooklyn employed over over 4,000 workers, with the ability to process 3 million pounds of sugar daily. The first commercial building at the Domino Sugar Factory site in Williamsburg officially launched leasing this week. If all you want out of the sugar factory is the sugar itself, you only have to deliver one of the crops (Sugarcane or Sugarbeet) and there will be one of the lines producing sugar. [30] Around this time, a large sign with yellow letters spelling "Domino Sugar" was erected on one of the refinery's buildings, facing the East River. [68][69] When the strike started, Domino reduced operations at the refinery, performing much of the refining at its Baltimore plant before shipping it to Brooklyn for finishing. [26][28] The reconstruction was reported to be completed by July 1883. At its peak of productivity, it refined 4 million pounds of sugar daily. [24] The next month, Havemeyer & Elder submitted plans for a new fireproof pan and finishing house measuring 250 by 70 feet (76 by 21 m) to the Bureau of Buildings. [10][f] American Sugar believed the refinery to be so fireproof that it did not need insurance. [60] The refinery's cooperage closed in 1946 after the industry stopped using wood barrels to ship sugar. Currently in the middle of a battle with local historians. [27] Only the Pan, Filter, and Finishing House remains of the refinery complex. Three years later, 17 of the largest sugar refiners in the U.S. merged to form the Sugar Refineries Co. Trust, later reorganized as the American Sugar … [31] The Pan, Filter, and Finishing House was one of the tallest buildings in Brooklyn when finished, rivaling the heights of early skyscrapers in Lower Manhattan's Financial District. the developer wants to demolish the old factory section and put up 4 300 foot residential towers. [124] The massing of the structure consists of two stepped towers on the north and south, which step down gradually from west to east. [15], In February 1882, Theodore Havemeyer purchased a refinery in Red Hook, Brooklyn, so that operations could restart while the new refinery was being erected. The tourism commission also is working with Domino … By the end of the Civil War, the factory had become the largest sugar refinery in the world, employing over 4,000 workers and processing 3 million pounds of sugar a day–more than half of the sugar consumed in the entire country. The Domino Sugar Refinery is a mixed-use development and former sugar refinery in the neighborhood of Williamsburg in Brooklyn, New York City, along the East River. [77][89], Two Trees submitted a new design plan for the site in 2013, designed by SHoP Architects. [50], By 1919, the refinery had over 4,500 paid employees. At the time, the plant had an annual payroll of $3.5 million and manufactured 70,000 long tons (78,000 short tons; 71,000 t) of sugar per year. [3] In 1917, during World War I, an explosion destroyed part of the plant,[3][48] killing between six and twelve workers. The block between South 4th and South 5th streets was a 7-story refinery building, while the block to the south was a single-story detached storehouse. In total, the entire 10-year Domino Sugar Factory project will yield 2,300 apartments, 500,000 square feet of commercial space, … Sited in the sprawling industrial relics of Brooklyn’s legendary Domino Sugar Factory, Walker’s physically and conceptually expansive installation—a massive, sugar-coated sphinx-like woman—responded to the building and its history. After American Sugar completed a plant in Baltimore in 1922, refining operations in Brooklyn were reduced. [105][122] The entire complex will eventually contain five residential buildings and cost $3 billion. [136], The interior was outfitted with brick floors atop brick flat-topped arches, which were supported by iron beams and 66 cast-iron columns. Built in 1856 by the Havemeyer family, it was the first of dozens of sugar refineries that contributed to the area’s emergence in the nineteenth century as the industrial center of the Port of New York. The “old buildings,” such as the Domino Sugar factory, housed manufacturing jobs for Williamsburg’s working class for many decades, and as globalization rose and jobs were exported overseas, these factories were shut down, leading to lots of empty space throughout Williamsburg. The Domino Sugar Refinery site in Brooklyn was the world's largest sugar factory for several decades Paul Raphaelson, from New York City, was the last person to photograph inside the landmark building The solution then went into the pan house, where it was boiled at 112 °F (44 °C) in vacuum pans that measured 32 feet (9.8 m) tall and 9 feet (2.7 m) across. [117][118] One South First contains 330 residential units, 66 of which are affordable-housing apartments; the units range from studios to two-bedroom apartments. The company then threatened to move to New Jersey in 1924 over the failure to close the dead-end streets. The Yonkers Refinery, in production along the banks of the Hudson River since 1921, produces over three million pounds of sugar a day -- now that's sweet! [133] The building was fueled by coal, which required a 155-foot (47 m) chimney to ventilate safely. Havemeyer produced in excess of 9 million pounds of sugar each year, boiling and refining raw sugar … “As long as you live. [127] The facade is made of precast concrete, which the architects stated is based on sugar crystals' molecular structure. [15] Because of the depth of the East River in the vicinity of the refinery, shipments of raw sugar from overseas could be loaded directly into the facility. [9] As part of the project, the 300-foot (91 m) dock was replaced with a 500-foot (150 m) bulkhead, and a new boiler house was erected, as well as a warehouse that could store 25,000 long tons (28,000 short tons; 25,000 t) of sugar. Now Walker is about to unveil her first public artwork, commissioned for the former Domino Sugar Factory in Williamsburg, Brooklyn. [80][96] The same year, from May through July, artist Kara Walker exhibited her piece A Subtlety at the refinery's Syrup Shed. Initially, there was serious concern that the explosion was the work of German agents, because the Germans were the United States' adversary in the war,[51] but the ultimate cause was found to be the ignition of sugar grains in the refinery's machinery. [41] Research and development activities were relocated in 1958 to American Sugar's Philadelphia facility. Courtesy of PAU. [54] The New York City government allowed the company to close streets in front of the refinery. The 10-story pan house and Finishing House sections are 130 feet (40 m) tall while the 13-story filter house section is 155 feet (47 m) tall, including a chimney. Architect Vishaan Chakrabarti takes us through the redesign of the former Domino Sugar Refinery building located in Williamsburg, BK. Now … [35] In 1896, American Sugar became one of the original twelve companies in the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The village of Williamsburg in northern Brooklyn was incorporated on the bank of the East Riverin 1827, with most of the commercial enterprises located on the waterfront, and after becoming a part of the city of Broo… ; the Losses and Insurance--a Partial List of the Policies", "The Havemeyers' Loss: Burning of Their Sugar Refinery", "Colossal: Mr. Theodore A. Havemeyer's New Sugar Refinery", "Local Manufacturers: The Interesting Process of Sugar Making", "Death in the Refineries: How the Slaves of the Sugar Trust Work, Suffer and Die Terrific Heat and Small Wages", "Railway for Sugar Trust; Company to Build a Terminal Line at Its Brooklyn Works", "A Brooklyn 'Death Avenue'? [49][50] A crowd of more than 15,000 people gathered to watch the plant burn. [1] The village of Williamsburg in northern Brooklyn was incorporated on the bank of the East River in 1827, with most of the commercial enterprises located on the waterfront, and after becoming a part of the city of Brooklyn in 1855, Williamsburg grew quickly. [84] However, it faced opposition from local residents, who objected to the scale of the proposed development. The Domino sugar refinery on Medford Street was owned by the American Sugar Refining Company, the largest sugar refining company in the United States. Currently in the middle of a battle with local historians. Dating back to 1856, the Domino Sugar Refinery was once the largest and most productive sugar refinery in the world. [4] The refinery employed several Havemeyer family members, including Theodore, Henry, Hector, and Charles, the latter two of whom later formed their own refinery. Join us for a virtual tour of Domino Sugar Refinery. [27][39] Fire escapes, fire extinguishers, and electric lights were also present in the Pan, Filter, and Finishing House. [120][121], The Domino Sugar Refinery site spans 11 acres (4.5 ha) on the East River north of the Williamsburg Bridge. Subscribe to our newsletter. Kent Avenue was known as First Street before 1881. [86][87] Development company Two Trees Management expressed interest for the site that June,[88] and purchased it for $185 million that October. List of New York City Designated Landmarks in Brooklyn, New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, "Austin, Nichols and Company Warehouse (Overturned)", "Williamsburg to Retain Historic Sugar Refinery", "The Sugar Market. The authors with Robert Shelton at the exhibit2737-42. [33][41][43] Workers were paid a starting salary of between $1.12 and $1.50 per day (equivalent to between $33 and $44 in 2019[e]), with 5- or 10-cent pay increases according to tenure. Designed by the architectural firm of James Corner, the public park includes pieces of machinery from the factory, as well as gardens, a play area for children, and various fields. From Manhattan, take the Roebling Street / Broadway West exit off the Williamsburg Bridge. At the time, the redevelopment would have cost $1.5 billion. The complex's filter, pan, and finishing house was made a New York City designated landmark in 2007, because of its historical significance as one of several industrial concerns on Brooklyn's waterfront. Over its 150 years, the Refinery operated under many different names and owners — Havemeyers & Elder, Sugar Refineries Company, American Sugar Refining Company, Amstar Sugar Corporation, Tate & Lyle, Domino Sugar Corporation, and Florida Crystals Corporation. Later. The Domino Sugar Factory, one of New York City’s architectural icons, dominates the waterfront of Williamsburg, Brooklyn. Built in 1856 by the Havemeyer family, it was the first of dozens of sugar refineries that contributed to the area’s emergence in the nineteenth century as the industrial center of the Port of New York. [137], The former buildings at the refinery include the Syrup Shed, the Wash House, the Turbine Room, the Power House, and the Pump House. [13][19], Construction on the new filter house was underway when the original refinery burned down on January 8, 1882, destroying the structures between South 3rd and South 4th streets. Immediately adjacent, between South 3rd and South 4th streets, was a 6-story storehouse and a machine shop. The sugar grains were then taken to the finishing house, where they were separated in granulating machines and then roasted and dried. The company was known as W. & F.C. [78] The Landmarks Preservation Commission (LPC) designated the Pan, Filter, and Finishing House as an official city landmark in 2007. This site was the “jewel in the crown” of the Domino Sugar empire that at one point produced up to 98% of the sugar consumed in the United … Havemeyer Company, Havemeyer, Townsend & Co. Refinery, and Domino Sugar) is a privately held sugar marketing and sales company based in Yonkers, New York, USA, that sells products produced by its manufacturing members.DFI distributes sugar to retailers under four brand names across the U.S: Domino… [118][119] The first office tenant at Ten Grand signed a lease for space in that building in December 2019. [67][68] As a result, 284 workers went on strike in June 1999. BASIC INFO: The Domino Sugar Factory is located at South 1 st Street at Kent Avenue, Williamsburg, NY 11211. You never forget. burlap sacks, began to be delivered in bulk. The terminal had been established in 1906. [103] The building contains amenities such as a rooftop deck, a fitness center, a residents' lounge, and a courtyard on the fourth floor. the property has been in limbo since 2004 and will probably still be … ; Sugar Trust Applying for a Surface Railroad Franchise Over There", "Sugar Loss May be Million, 1 Dead, Score Hurt", "Explosion Wrecks Big Sugar Plant; Fifteen Men Taken to Hospitals One Dead, Four Dying", "Brooklyn Ferry Properties Figure In Two Deals", "New "Sugar Town" Employing Army of Workers to Rise in Williamsburg", "New Refinery Ready for American Sugar; Brooklyn Plant About Complete and Operations Will Begin This Week", "Removal of iconic Domino Sugar sign will start this week", "American Sugar Refinery Vital Factor in Boro Growth, Celebrating Golden Jubilee", "Refinery to Mark 50th Anniversary; American Sugar Was Founded in Brooklyn in 1891", "Leases Wall St. Space; American Sugar Refining Company Gets Two Floors in New Building", "City Has Plan to Upgrade Section of Williamsburg", "Tate & Lyle Sets Deal To Buy Amstar Sugar", "The Media Business: Advertising; If All Else Fails, Try Plain English", "Striking Domino Workers Feel Bitterness and Resolve", "At Sugar Refinery, A Melting-Pot Strike; Workers of Many Nations Besiege Brooklyn Relic of Industrial Age", "Company News; Tate & Lyle Agrees to Sell Sugar Operations", "Familiar Domino Sugar Refinery Will Shut Much of Its Operation", "New Neighborhood Emerging on the Domino Refinery Site", "The Last Grain Falls at a Sugar Factory", "Developers Known for Residential Work Buy Domino Sugar Plant on Brooklyn Waterfront", "It's official: Two Trees is now developing the Domino Sugar factory", "Brooklyn Waterfront Called Endangered Site", "Landmark Status Is Approved for Domino Refinery in Brooklyn", "Domino Sugar Is Gone, but Sign Will Live On After Ruling", "Live from Domino Sugar: 'New Domino' Detailed", "Domino Sugar Housing Plan Gets Key Council Support", "2 Sides Clash at City Hall Over Domino Housing Plan", "Domino sugar plans on verge of meltdown", "Lured by Visions of Real Estate Profits, Nonprofit Group Stumbled", "Developer to Revive a Project in Brooklyn", "Domino Sugar Refinery Sold To Two Trees For $185 Million, Affordable Housing Still A Question Mark", "Domino Sugar Factory Master Plan Development / SHoP Architects", "At Brooklyn's Domino Sugar Site, Waning Opposition to Prospect of Luxury Towers", "Plan to Redevelop Domino Sugar Factory in Brooklyn Hits Snag: De Blasio", "Eerie Photos Of Brooklyn's Gigantic, Abandoned Domino Sugar Factory", "A Sonorous Subtlety: Kara Walker with Kara Rooney", "Luxury Apartments? Holiday Classics To Cap Off Your Meal. Domino Sugar Factory . When active as a refinery, it was operated by the Havemeyer family's American Sugar Refining Company, which produced Domino brand sugar and was one of several sugar factories on the East River in northern Brooklyn. Subsequently, the mixture was sent through centrifuges, where it was separated into sugar and molasses. [100] Several gantry cranes were situated on the waterfront, unloading sugar. [64][71] American Sugar Refining bought the brand and plant from Tate & Lyle the same year. About Domino Sugar. [95] Three floors would be built on top of the existing factory building. [90] The new plan called for 60% more public open space on a new street grid, allowed mixed-use zoning, and was designed to connect the existing neighborhood to the new 0.25 mi (400 m) waterfront. [41], American Sugar established the East River Terminal Railroad in 1907 to transport sugar between the refinery and the Brooklyn Eastern District Terminal,[45] immediately to the north of the sugar refinery. The reason was the sugar dust that had accumulated in the factory over the years. DOMINO SUGAR FACTORY SITE HISTORY Built in 1856 on the Williamsburg waterfront, the Domino Sugar Factory, first owned by the American Sugar Refining Company, was one of the largest sugar manufacturing facilities in the world. In 1856 the original Domino Sugar Factory was built in Brooklyn, New York, soon to become the largest sugar refinery of its time. [41], The work conditions at the refinery were described as onerous, and the workers were poorly paid, despite working shifts of at least ten hours per day. Conceived in partnership between Two Trees Management and landscape architecture firm James Corner Field Operations, the lead designers of the High Line, Domino Park is an unrivaled … The adaptive reuse of the 10 Jay Street shares many similarities to the renovation of the former Domino Sugar Factory, just up the river in Brooklyn's Williamsburg area. [31] The family created the Sugar Refineries Company or Sugar Trust in late 1887. [80], The extant structure of the refinery consists of the Pan, Filter, and Finishing House, a New York City designated landmark designed by Theodore Havemeyer, Thomas Winslow, and J. E. [42] According to a 1900 Brooklyn Daily Eagle article, workers were employed for at least eight years on average, and many workers either lived near Kent Avenue or took trolley lines to the refinery. About Domino Sugar Factory Redevelopment Plan. [13][25] According to the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Theodore Havemeyer supervised the new structures' construction. PAU is designing the adaptive-reuse of the Domino Sugar Refinery, an industrial landmark that will again become the nerve center of Brooklyn’s waterfront. [39][134] The chimney was among the region's tallest when the Pan, Filter, and Finishing House was built. [138], A two-story boiler house was located along the East River, west of the refinery building. [113] Domino Park, a public park along the East River waterfront, opened in June 2018. Built in 1856, the Domino Sugar Factory is a New York City architectural icon that dominates the East River waterfront of Williamsburg, Brooklyn. ; a Temporary Advance in Prices on Account of the Havemeyer Fire", "The Havemeyer Fire. Then, the mixture was strained, pumped to the thirteenth floor, and placed into 10-foot-tall (3.0 m), 8-foot-wide (2.4 m) circular vats called "blow-ups". The Domino Sugar factory is now the site of one of Williamsburg’s most popular parks and a towering condominium complex, but it was once the world’s largest sugar refinery. This building is going to be torn down, and one of the things I think about is how the sphinx is kind of smirking. view. Cranes were constructed to unload it, and a new raw sugar shed was built to store the bulk sugar. The plan called for 2,200 apartments, 660 of which would be set aside or designated as affordable housing, as well as a school; the "Domino Sugar" sign on the refinery would be preserved. [104] A yellow "Domino Sugar" sign, dating from the 1920s,[57] was hung on one of the buildings facing the waterfront; it is planned to be reinstalled on the Pan, Filter, and Finishing House. The highest-paid workers at the plant earned between $100 and $150 a month (equivalent to between $2,955 and $4,433 in 2019[e]). That was the number Robert Shelton punched into a clock at the Domino Sugar factory for 20 years. [58][59] The Brooklyn Citizen said in 1941 that the refinery made Brooklyn the center of sugar refining in the United States, similar to how Detroit manufactured cars and Pittsburgh manufactured steel. When the redevelopment is complete, it will include 200,000 square feet (19,000 m2) of community and commercial space; 600,000 square feet (56,000 m2) of office space; 2,800 apartments, of which 700 will be affordable; and 6 acres (2.4 ha) of parkland on the waterfront, which is part of Domino Park. Remembering the Workers of the Domino Sugar Factory For 20 years, Robert Shelton punched the clock at Brooklyn's cavernous sugar refinery. Early 1950s Raw sugar, which had previously been delivered to the refinery in 200-lb. [53][55] The renovation was completed in 1927. [103][111] 325 Kent Avenue has 382,750 square feet (35,559 m2) of residential space and 9,370 square feet (871 m2) of ground-floor retail space. 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